A growing body of literature points to positivecontributions made by the cancer experience (benefitfinding), such as an improvement in personalresources and skills, an enhanced sense of purpose, apositive adjustment in life priorities, and closerrelationships. This study explored multiple aspectsof the relationships between intrapersonal andinterpersonal coping skills reported afterparticipating in a group-based cognitive-behavioralstress management intervention or a one-day seminar,levels of social functioning reported at 3- and9-month follow-ups. and reports of benefit findingmeasured at 3- and 9-month follow-ups. Participants,136 women newly treated for stage 0-II breast cancer,were randomized to either the intervention or thecontrol group, and were initially assessedapproximately 4-8 weeks after breast cancer surgery(T1), then at the end of the intervention (T2), thenat 3-month follow-up (T3), and again after a 9-monthfollow-up (T4). Skill building was operationalized asthe difference between T1 and T2 coping skillsscores. The study examined which of these variablesmay have contributed to the report of benefit findingat T3.
The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine correlates of benefit finding at study entry and individuals trajectories of benefit finding over time among men treated for early stage prostate cancer (n = 261). Correlates associated with benefit finding at study entry included intrinsic religiosity, perceived social support, perceived present control, approach coping, use of emotional support, avoidant coping, and religious coping. Within-persons changes in optimism, perceived social support, perceived present control, approach coping, use of emotional support, avoidant coping, and religious coping were associated with within-persons changes in benefit finding. The association between the trajectories of perceived social support and benefit finding was partially mediated by approach coping and use of emotional support. The findings suggest that coping responses may represent an important mechanism through which changes in benefit finding occur.
In this study, we evaluated the nurse’s roles. These roles were for two principles, as a counselor and as a provider for cervical cancer screening tests. In the first role, the nurse succeeded in counseling women about the benefits of cervical cancer screening by dismaying the stigma associated with cervical cancer screening. This counseling resulted in the acceptance of screening for early detection of cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid. The nurse demonstrated proficiency in the ability to successfully perform VIA and Pap smear screening. This study indicates also that VIA has a role in detection of cervical lesions that currently is not readily available in Egypt. By comparing VIA to Pap smear, we discovered that VIA is an effective method to detect precancerous/cancerous cervical lesions in a low resource setting with limited availability of cervical cancer screening. ?
Cost versus Benefit in Cancer Care
The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer had been evaluated in randomly hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 981 breast cancer cases, 283 ovarian cancer cases, 222 endometrial cancer and 1019 controls. Logistic regression model were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. Early age at menarche found to be a significantly strong risk factor during pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer group. Evaluation of the relationship between early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk in the ovarian and endometrial cancer too. The age at which premenopausal breast cancer women gave birth to her first child is increased with age at first birth. Also, nulliparity in breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer is associated with higher risk compared to those who had different number of births.These findings suggest that Albanian women have breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer risk factors similar to women in western countries that need to be studied further.
Prostate cancer incidences in Africa are on the rise, presenting with it a lot of challenges. In Ghana, prostate cancer is the commonest and the leading cause of cancer mortality in males. It is believed that alcohol consumption in the early stages of life may be a risk factor for developing prostate cancer. This belief is based on the evidence that alcohol may act as a carcinogen itself or may modulate the risk from other carcinogens through several known mechanisms. Notwithstanding, studies of this kind hitherto had not been explored in the African context. In this study, the relationship between drinking behaviour at the youthful ages of life and the risk of developing prostate cancer were explored.
Over the past two decades in Taiwan, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. The equivalent peak of Taiwanese occurred about 10 years younger that United States. Younger than 45 years old female (pre-menopause) breast cancer women were increasing rapidly in Taiwan. But, gene line mutation of Asian-Pacific countries, such as China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Malaysia occurred significant lower than Caucasian women with breast cancer. Chemical hormone replacement therapy that may cause breast cancer is not as popular in Taiwan as in Western countries. To explain this by epidemiology,we found Taiwanese women with premenstrual or post menstruation problems are greatly interest to use traditional Chinese herbs or herbal estrogen. It is reasonable to suspect the overuse of herbs may contribute to the Taiwanese breast cancer incidence. Breast MRI image for detecting breast lesions is extremely sensitive. It can identify breast cancer at early stage of the formation. In this book,we introduce our experiences on how MRI helps to alert women with overuse hormone or herb to increase their breast cancer risk. We also discuss the benefit of using anti-estrogen to prevent breast cancer.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Several studies have evaluated the relationship between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs. The leading cause of both lung cancer and COPD is well recognized in tobacco use. The aim of our study is to assess the capability of Image Cytometry to identify neoplastic lesions that occur in smokers using 5cER as diagnostic parameter that could help clinicians in lung cancer’s early detection, using a noninvasive way. In our study, the sputum of 116 smokers was collected. 5cER value confirmed both cancer and no-cancer diagnosis with sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 87%. Moreover, our aim is to identify possible markers and to understand if there is a correlation with ploidy status. Preliminary data show that same genes have positive correlation (r > 0,5) and same negative correlation (r < - 0,5). This study demonstrates that sputum sample and laboratory approach could represents a good field to investigate new target for new potential therapies in lung cancer.
Cancer cervix is the 2nd most common cancer in women accounting for 68.5% of all gynecological malignancies.The estimated new cancer cervix cases per year are 500,000 of which 79% occur in the developing countries.Cervical dysplasia does not cause many symptoms;therefore, regular screening and early diagnosis are important. The single most important step that a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer is a pap smear, which is a gentle scraping at the cervix during a gynecological examination.To judge the merits of a pap smear,Colposcopy provides a technique for visualization of cervix and vagina to examine physiological and pathological changes of squamocolumnar junction and select the optimal site for biopsy.Refined screening techniques and improved patient education have contributed to an increased awareness and early detection of pre-invasive lesions of the female genital tract and in particular those of cervix.The study is aimed to assess the predictive value of Pap smear and Colposcopy in cervical cancer detection programmes and further suggesting that cervical cancer is preventable and is highly suitable for primary prevention.
This book explores the applications of plasmonic gold nanorods (GNRs) in early cancer diagnostics and treatment by engineering the light focusing properties. On account of polarisation-dependent excitation efficiency of GNRs and their three-dimensionally random orientations, radially polarised beams are advantageous over linearly polarised beams because they can generate focal fields with the similar strength in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the energy density is studied to provide comprehensive understanding of light-matter interaction. Investigations into two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging of gold nanorods doped in nanocomposite films are conducted by applying different values of numerical aperture (NA) and annular obstruction sizes under linear and radial polarisation illumination, which shows that the radially polarised beam can produce stronger TPEF imaging in the presence of high NA. The effectiveness of the radial polarisation is further confirmed by the detection and the photothermal therapy (PTT) results of GNR assisted cancer cells. The energy threshold for PTT mediated with the radial polarisation is only one fifth of that required for the linear counterpart.
Breast cancer is the third most common cancer in women with about 22% of all cancer incidences arise from breast cancer. Moreover, it is still the leading cause of cancer mortality in women, compare to the other common cancers. Recent several biomarkers have been associated with the disease and these include protein and genetic markers. Due to the absence of both rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools for breast cancer, it cannot be detected in its early stage which is the most crucial point in treatment. Although the disease has available and widely investigated markers, the breast cancer has scarcely been studied with biosensing technology. This book provides theoretical and practical information about electrochemical DNA biosensors for detection of genetic mutations of breast cancer.