This book contains a study of cost and benefit of higher education in Bangladesh. By higher education is meant five years of study consisting of the four-year undergraduate Honours programme and the one-year Master’s programme at the public universities of Bangladesh. Higher education can have many benefits, but this study considers only financial benefits. In the analysis of cost and benefit of higher education, cost per student is estimated by adding private cost and recurring cost per student at the relevant university. The benefit per student, which is more difficult to estimate, is calculated by considering the sum of life time income minus what the student would have earned if he had no higher education, discounted by various rates of interest. The costs and benefits are then compared by applying three standard methods—the benefit-cost ratio (BCR), the net present value (NPV), and the internal rate of return (IRR). All three measures show that undertaking higher education is still worthwhile, but the difference between benefit and cost is getting narrowed down. The study discusses the implications of these results and makes some pertinent policy suggestions.
Although there is agreement among economists that education pays, they disagree on which level has more returns. Individuals who possess higher levels of education tend to access better paying jobs than their compatriots with lower qualifications. But those who remain in the system longer remain indebted for long after graduation. There has been debate as to which level of education has higher social returns. Some scholars contend that primary and secondary schooling have higher social returns compared to undergraduate and postgraduate schooling. However, emerging school of thought hold that social rate of return to university schooling is much higher because of the responsibilities that education meritocracy would place on an individual with higher academic credentials. As the debate rages on there is almost concurrence that private rates of return could be higher to university education compared to primary and secondary levels. But rising direct costs have priced out the poor from purchasing education paving way for loans and sale of property. So, does higher education investment pay? This is the puzzle that this book unravels.
Bangladesh has experienced a brilliant growth in private educational sector since the early 1990s. The development has resulted mainly through the emergence of a large number of universities in the private sector where quality remains a great concern. An exploratory survey was conducted to analyze the consumers’ (students) evaluation of private higher education sectors in Bangladesh with particular reference to the quality as well as the cost of education. The sample was taken on a random basis from ten private universities in Dhaka metropolitan area, the capital city of Bangladesh. The respondents (students) were asked to evaluate the quality and the cost of education at private universities in Bangladesh. Respondents ranked the attributes on a number of itemized seven-point scale ratings bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives. The result of this study shows that faculty credentials, academic calendar, campus facility, research facility, and cost of education are associated with quality education and that the consumers feel most of the private universities in Bangladesh provide quality education at reasonable costs.
Higher education provision in most countries has great financial implication for both the state and higher education institutions. The state of the South African economy, the restructuring of higher education and changes in funding of higher education call for the application of cost effective strategies, which can be used to optimize the use of limited funds. This book reflects on the South African Higher Education environment before the 36 institutions existing at the time were merged into 23 universities. It also examines the management of cost in higher education institutions in South Africa. The relevant issues of cost management, especially budgeting and decision making are given adequate emphasis in relation to higher education institutions. It also reflects the extent to which cost management principles and cost management systems are applied in higher education institutions in South Africa. The author makes significant recommendations on how cost management can be improved for the benefit of institutional sustainability. The book would be of great interest to finance executives in universities and colleges, as well as governments that fund higher education.
Traditional agriculture in Northern Bangladesh is unsustainable and keeps farmers in a vicious circle of poverty. Agroforestry is a promising alternative, which is considered as one of the very few options to lift people out of the poverty trap and to protect the existing forest as well as improving environmental sustainability. Agroforestry may not only be good for (agro)biodiversity and sustainability, but also has a good economic rate of return. This research identifies the potential role of agroforestry on rural household development and assesses benefit-cost of agroforestry compared to traditional agriculture. Both quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative methods are used for analyzing data. The quantitative-economic parts of the study used descriptive statistics and econometric techniques combined with micro-economic models, especially cost-benefit analysis of agroforestry and traditional agriculture combinations at the household level.
Bangladesh is one of the environmentally rich countries in the world as Malaysia. In her education systems, the environmental education is largely considered at all levels particularly in the higher education for both the countries based on the British education systems. In 1971 and 1956, Bangladesh and Malaysia achieved her independence respectively. Meanwhile, both the governments passed some important environmental laws taught at the higher education levels but still, they are very limited in number and scope. Historically, these environmental laws were passed in eighties and the Public Health Act 1857 is one of them. This study examines the present state of the environmental education in the higher education in Bangladesh and Malaysia based on the primary and secondary sources consisting of 25 relevant respondents from the different criteria
The book presents the Higher Education(HE) System of Bangladesh and the role of National University(NU).The fundamental objective of this book is to trace out how the NU ensures and develops the quality of HE in Bangladesh. Within the broad framework,the specific objectives of the research are to: (a) Trace out how NU maintains quality in HE on the affiliation and inspection system, and takes required steps for the development of affiliated colleges; (b) Assess the measures of NU so far undertaken for maintaining quality in admission and registration, and other related issues; and (c) Explore the examination system of NU from the announcement of the examination routine, question formulation and moderation, arranging examination, publication of results, punishment against unfair means and certificate distribution system. The book contains nine chapters where a vivid scenery has been presented on objectives,Theoretical Framework,Bangladesh Education System, NU & Bangladesh HE,NU and Affiliation System, Admission & Registration,Examination System,Comparative HE system with a brief observation & Recommendation of Bangladesh HE.It is a informative book for researcher globally.
I have pleasure to note that my long cherished dream to publish my dissertation from Germany. This opportunity created by Lambert Academic Publishing.I am optimistic who design various socio-economic research programs independently such as, climate change and its impact of agricultural production, Environmental Economics and agriculture, poverty measurement and environmental development, Cost-benefit analysis from environmental point of view, Agriculture, Health and environmental linkages etc, it will be helpful for them to take any decision. Specifically, social scientist, Agricultural Economist, Environmental specialist as well as Economist would be benefited from my dissertation.What is more, this benevolent dissertation would help to combat with the current global concerns in environmental research and to identify and critically analyses key factors shaping the environmental and resource economics programmes. I will be lucky enough if academic expert collect this paper from Lambert Academic Publishing. I am grateful to Lambert Academic Publishing for this opportunity.
The Study primarily deals with the estimation of cost and recovery behavior of professional education in Punjab. From the study, it becomes clear that the practices related to fees and funds, recovery of costs, salary of the staff demand serious attention of the state. The level of fees and funds are very high in different trades/courses in the professional higher education. The private institutes providing professional higher education have been found to be generating huge economic surpluses, i.e. receipts were found to be much more than that of costs. The state has to decide about the extent and modes of cost recovery. The allowing of full recovery of institutional costs would be socially hazardous step, and ultimately, it will turn out to be a phenomenon not conducive to the economic growth of state. It is also held that as is the practice in advanced countries, the recoveries from the students should not be more than 20-25 per cent of the recurring cost from the students. The institutions/governments should bear 75-80 per cent of the recurring cost.
Since the second half of the 20th century, some 'change forces' have caused the transformation of society,many of its institutionalized services, and the global socioeconomic interactions.One of these institutions has been higher education. Higher education has under gone changes in governance, enrollment, funding,new style of competition, quality, and missions. The new scenario has raised new concerns about the importance of tertiary education in the enhancement of the socio-economic, political and cultural status of both individuals and societies. These developments coupled with the so-called globalization have necessitated mass enrollment in higher education, where governments were unable or unwilling to fund higher education as before.The overall development finally gave way to the introduction of higher education cost sharing. This book is merely focusing on the experiences of developing countries in implementing the policy of cost sharing in higher education funding.
The aim and target group of this current project study is education, in an informative way to the technical and scientific way. Md. Tusarul Islam in an innovative way always linked to the social work. He likes to work with the root level of peoples with their lifestyle, and necessary for livelihood. Now he is working in the same field (sociology) in rural areas. In the meantime, searching opportunity for a higher study like PhD in Sociology. He with his elder brother always in touch to the social healthcare as a part of social pharmaceutical activities.
We convey our profound gratitude to the Commonwealth Commission, United Kingdom whose generous financial support helped to study at Cambridge. In this study based on prevalence of worms (deworming), nutritional status, knowledge on public health significant issues (health education) and practice of hygiene (sanitation), the Quality of Life was calculated. In Health Education (HE) area the QALYs gain at 18 month were 0.80, 0.59, 1.20 and 1.10 respectively and average QALY gain 0.92. In deworming (CH) area the QALYs gain at 18 month were 1.06, 0.46, 0.60 and 0.48 respectively and average QALY gain 0.65. In both Health education and Chemotherapy (HE+CH) area the QALYs gain at 18 month were 1.40, 0.48, 1.22 and 0.86 respectively and average QALY gain 0.99 and in control (C) area the QALYs gains at 18 month were 0.94, 0.46, 0.56 and 0.60 respectively and average QALY gain 0.64. Based on incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), among three different interventions such as CH, HE and CH+HE compare to C (Control), Chemotherapy (CH) was the most cost effective intervention. Again per 1 QALY gain the cost was $29 per household for chemotherapy. Between CH+HE and HE, former was better.
The effect of organizational learning on leading strategic change addresses theories and empirical studies on how organizational learning patterns exert influence on strategic change leadership in both public and Christian Higher education institutions of Ethiopia. It asserts that organizational learning patterns incorporate many facets and they can exert positive influences on leading strategic leadership. It includes practical implications for higher education leaders, managers and other stake holders for the improvement of organizational learning patterns for the effective change leadership in both public and Christian higher education institution. It is hoped that those who read this book would benefit for this well researched work.
The concept of reduced or zero tillage systems is not new. Many developed and developing countries also use these systems, which are often found to generate higher yields, reduce production costs and reduce erosion and other forms of land degradation, with corresponding benefits for the natural resource. A whole system of mechanization has been developed in these countries to ensure good crop establishment, proper placement of fertilizer and handling of crop residues for better yield. These equipments are accompanied by a set of recommended crop management and protection for handling weed, disease and pest problems occurring under the new tillage systems. Appropriate agriculture mechanization for commercialization of agriculture is a need to achieve timeliness in field operations, increased productivity, reduce cost of production and to minimize farm labour. So, it has no alternative to reducing the cost of cultivation that ultimately reduces the price of agricultural products through mechanization and commercialization of the agriculture sector.
Rate of returns in education is based on the technique of cost-benefit analysis, which compares the benefit accruing from education with the cost. In this paper, the private rate of return is estimated for management education using the short-cut method of the cost-benefit analysis. Based on data generated in Guwahati, returns to management education is estimated at 17.64 percent. Besides returns accruing to females management graduates are found to be higher than that of males. Similarly MBAs in Finance enjoy greater returns than those employed in other functional areas.
The growth and development is a continuous process of every dynamic society. The population grows, the standard of living increases and so rises the expectations. The rural masses often tend to be influenced by the economic ‘demonstration effect’ and shift to urban areas while the lower middle class or the middle class expands usually on the outer peripheral of the city /town areas. This is a continuous process leading to creation /expansion of newer urban areas. This expansion should be ideally planned, equipped with basic civic/economic amenities namely drainage, sewage, road, market and parks etc. The planned and unplanned areas have different effects on the Cost-Benefit model. The positive effects of planning an area are manifold while leaving an area unplanned or not investing in an area has enormous negative impacts. Interestingly, findings for Indian cities can be replicable in other South Asian Nations namely Pakistan and Bangladesh (due to geographic, demographic and sociological similarities).