Renewable energy is an important item on the European Union’s agenda. The current goal is to increase the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix to 20% by 2020, currently being 13%. Wind power will play a big role in achieving this goal. This work focuses on the wind power sector in Germany, one of the European leaders in the expansion of this renewable energy source. Since renewable energy in Germany is supported by the feed-in tariff, this puts tens of billions of euros at stake. This work presents a cost benefit analysis of the whole industry until 2030, separately for onshore and offshore installations. Various costs and benefits stemming from the expansion of wind power are inferred from literature review and studying the peculiarities of the German case. The magnitude of governmental support is calculated by applying the Weibull distribution of wind speeds at different zones across Germany and power curves of 5 modern wind turbines. The analysis performed in this work may be useful for political decision makers wishing to approach wind power in a balanced way. Researchers might use the Weibull and Power Curve framework discussed in this research in their own work.
This book titled:”Cost Benefit Analysis of Certified Cocoa Production in Ondo State, Nigeria” centres on the cost and returns associated with the production of certified cocoa in Nigeria. In addition, the book contains information on comparative analysis of production of conventional and certified cocoa in addition to the benefits derivable from the production of certified cocoa. Some basic concepts associated with cocoa certification such as: Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Business Practices (GBP), Good Social Practices (GSP), good Environmental Practices (GEP) were discussed in the book. Analytical tools involving Net present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Returns (IRR), Benefit: Cost Ratio (BCR) were explained into details with appropriate formulae. This book will be of immense value to Undergraduate and Post graduate students in the field of Agriculture, researchers, Policy makers and all the major stakeholders in the cocoa value chain( Farmers, Transporters, brokers, Commissioned agents, processors, input suppliers Licensed Buying Agents, Exporters, Warehousing Agents, and Financial institutions.
The shipping industry has of late been faced with “Tidal Waves” of environmental regulations and strict compliance requirements. These regulations extend not only to vessels while at sea, but also while staying in ports. Ships burn diesel to run their auxiliary engines to produce power for hotelling, loading and unloading activities while onshore. Shore power avails itself as a potential substitute and a way to partially mitigate the strict and costly regulation requirements. A breakthrough in International standards on OPS, the lack of which has been a draw back in OPS implementation, was realized in July 2012 with the launching of IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005-1. Other challenges have been different frequency levels of vessel power systems and a large variance in power requirements by vessels, ranging from less than 1MW in some bulk carriers to 12MW in large cruise vessels. The viability of OPS implementation is not a case of “one size fits all”. Project appraisal should be done on a case by case basis taking into consideration individual port operation characteristics.This research analyses OPS Viability for the Port Of Mombasa-Kenya
This report is a Master Thesis for the Agricultural Engineering School of the Polytechnic University of Madrid. The report has been carried out during an Erasmus Programme Stage in the Department of Forest and Landscape at the Faculty of Life Sciences of University of Copenhagen. The purpose of this study was to practice and test the current methodologies of economic assessment of environmental projects. This valuation can serve as an example on how to evaluate the benefits obtained by an ecological restoration project in European countries.
Cost–Benefit Analysis in Education
Globalization is the internationalization process. For developing countries,it means integration with the world economy. In the era of globalization where the whole world is integrated into one market, Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are of prime importance especially for developing countries. TNCs are those which have gone global i.e. extended their operations beyond the boundaries of the nation, in which they were originally started. The industrial, technological, banking and investment sector in India is undergoing a phase of transition owing to increased competition and changes in regulatory scenario due to globalization. This is forcing the companies to shed flab and become more technology oriented. Due to rapid changes in the business environment which require diligent measures from companies if they have to survive in the long run, the domestic companies particularly the public sector companies in India are finding it difficult to cope with the competition.With time it looks like, the relatively Small Indian Companies will have to either close down their operations as restructuring process would again prove to be burden for them or they can look for a sound merger partner.
In the last 60 years different efforts have been made for the construction of a metro system in Bogota the capital of Colombia. The closer the city has got to building a large transport project was with the implementation of a Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) System in 1999 called Transmilenio. This BRT system helped organize the chaotic transport system of the city, but it is currently suffering from capacity and operational problems and the need for a rail base system is evident. Bogota and London are two cities with similar characteristics such as population, area, density and type of soil. Furthermore both cities are in the process of building a new mass transport system; in Bogota the first line of the metro and in London Crossrail. Based on these similarities the aim of this project was to construct a practical analytical tool for decision makers to consider the direct income and costs of the metro project and key social and economic benefits that involve the user and non-users of the transport system. Three different scenarios and seven sensitivity tests indicate the project is feasible, it should be constructed, and will bring benefits for the Colombian society.
I have pleasure to note that my long cherished dream to publish my dissertation from Germany. This opportunity created by Lambert Academic Publishing.I am optimistic who design various socio-economic research programs independently such as, climate change and its impact of agricultural production, Environmental Economics and agriculture, poverty measurement and environmental development, Cost-benefit analysis from environmental point of view, Agriculture, Health and environmental linkages etc, it will be helpful for them to take any decision. Specifically, social scientist, Agricultural Economist, Environmental specialist as well as Economist would be benefited from my dissertation.What is more, this benevolent dissertation would help to combat with the current global concerns in environmental research and to identify and critically analyses key factors shaping the environmental and resource economics programmes. I will be lucky enough if academic expert collect this paper from Lambert Academic Publishing. I am grateful to Lambert Academic Publishing for this opportunity.
Due to the increasing environmental degradation and high uncertainty of the degree of the natural capital substitutability, a necessity for a decision tool, that would assess a public project/policy, apart from the private, also from the social (so also environmental) point of view, has arisen. We present the environmental cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as an ideal aid to accomplish such an objective in theory, however, as a still imperfect tool to achieve it in practice. The CBA is full of controversies. In this book we address one of the most controversial steps - the choice of the social discount rate (SDR), in particular the social time discount rate (or “pure” rate of time preference) for the public environmental projects/policies in the Czech Republic. We therefore search for the most appropriate way of the SDR determination, value the social time discount rate and the SDR in general should take in the public environmental projects/policies in the Czech Republic and whether these outcomes are in compliance with the recommendations of the European Commission. This book should be very useful to everyone worldwide who deals with environmental CBAs or sustainable development issues.
New Foundations of Cost–Benefit Analysis
The growth and development is a continuous process of every dynamic society. The population grows, the standard of living increases and so rises the expectations. The rural masses often tend to be influenced by the economic ‘demonstration effect’ and shift to urban areas while the lower middle class or the middle class expands usually on the outer peripheral of the city /town areas. This is a continuous process leading to creation /expansion of newer urban areas. This expansion should be ideally planned, equipped with basic civic/economic amenities namely drainage, sewage, road, market and parks etc. The planned and unplanned areas have different effects on the Cost-Benefit model. The positive effects of planning an area are manifold while leaving an area unplanned or not investing in an area has enormous negative impacts. Interestingly, findings for Indian cities can be replicable in other South Asian Nations namely Pakistan and Bangladesh (due to geographic, demographic and sociological similarities).
This book is intended to provide guidelines to engineer, town planner, economic analyst, researcher and authority on how to evaluate the efficiency of flood control schemes using cost-benefit analysis. As flood control project is very expensive, it is crucial to decide on which projects should be implemented in order to gain the most economical solution. The decision making process is based on the projects that provide highest benefit-cost ratio and maximum net benefit. By using this book, one will understand the basics of flood: hydrology, mitigation and implication. The method to assess the damages and the cost-benefit analysis technique are also described in details. Finally, a case study is shown as an example, in order to ensure that the readers will fully understand the necessary steps to calculate the cost-benefit parameters. Case study presented in this book is limited to the locality of the author. However, the readers can always perform another analysis, based on their local condition. By using combination of basic knowledge and case study in this book, the readers can develop their own tools to determine the cost-benefit parameters.
This second edition covers all the main problems that arise in a typical cost-benefit exercise. It is entirely up to date, reflecting the most recent research in the area. Part One covers the main theoretical issues affecting cost-benefit analysis. Part Two considers the problem of ascribing a monetary value to things. The third part covers six separate case studies drawn from real-life examples. The book begins with an extended elementary introduction written by the editors.
The report is based on the fieldwork that took place in three different Dighis of Coochbehar. The report that we present here comprises the results of the field survey. The information base has been collected from Sagar Dighi, Rajmatha Dighi and Sib Dighi. The report should be taken into account as a case study, the findings of which can possibly furnish some abstraction about awareness of the people regarding the preservation and the development of the water bodies. The study has various stipulations. However, it would be worth the effort if it inspires others to take the preventive measures against contaminating the water bodies and to preserve the water bodies. It will be highly exhilarating if we get anything put in from the persons who read the report with a scanner mind so that we can procure the befalling to emend the quality of the research works, which are being carried out.
Systematic Analysis of University Libraries – An Application of Cost–Benefit Analysis to the MIT Libraries